Alexander Gardner (1821 – 1882) was a Scottish photographer who emigrated to the United States in 1856. He is best known for his photographs of the American Civil War, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, and the execution of the conspirators to Lincoln’s assassination. In 1860, Gardner became the chief photographer for the Civil War under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Topographical Engineers. After the war, Gardner was commissioned to photograph Native Americans who came to Washington to discuss treaties; and he surveyed the proposed route of the Kansas Pacific railroad to the Pacific Ocean. After 1871, Gardner gave up photography and helped to found an insurance company. A century later, photographic analysis suggested that Gardner had manipulated the settings of his Civil War photos by moving soldiers corpses and weapons into more dramatic positions.