by Sarah Jamison

  SNOWFLAKE WARS Part 2: Gustav Hellmann (1854 – 1939) was a German meteorologist who was influenced by Wilson Bentley’s work. He began photographing his own snowflakes and found that none of his images looked like the perfect ones being sold all over the world by Bentley. Hellmann began publishing articles critisizing Bentley’s approach to his photographs and charged that Bentley’s images were produced through significant manipulations of the pictures and that Bentley was physically cutting out imperfections from the photograph negatives. In response, Bentley argued that not only did he practice such manipulations, but that not doing so would be inaccurate. What ensued was essentially a debate on scientific ethics, with Hellmann arguing that altering the pictures led to misrepresentations of the snow crystals and Bentley arguing that untouched pictures misrepresented the crystals that in their truest form were nothing short of perfection. In the end, Bentley’s photographs held up to the test of time. Not many of Hellmann’s snowflake photograph’s have survived, and many do not know his work or his tie to Bentley.

SNOWFLAKE WARS Part 2: Gustav Hellmann (1854 – 1939) was a German meteorologist who was influenced by Wilson Bentley’s work. He began photographing his own snowflakes and found that none of his images looked like the perfect ones being sold all over the world by Bentley. Hellmann began publishing articles critisizing Bentley’s approach to his photographs and charged that Bentley’s images were produced through significant manipulations of the pictures and that Bentley was physically cutting out imperfections from the photograph negatives. In response, Bentley argued that not only did he practice such manipulations, but that not doing so would be inaccurate. What ensued was essentially a debate on scientific ethics, with Hellmann arguing that altering the pictures led to misrepresentations of the snow crystals and Bentley arguing that untouched pictures misrepresented the crystals that in their truest form were nothing short of perfection. In the end, Bentley’s photographs held up to the test of time. Not many of Hellmann’s snowflake photograph’s have survived, and many do not know his work or his tie to Bentley.

by Sarah Jamison

  Today I am starting a 3 day episode - because some things need more than one post to explain. This week it is SNOWFLAKE BATTLES. We start with Wilson Bentley (1865 – 1931), one of the first known photographers of snowflakes. He perfected a process of catching flakes on black velvet in such a way that their images could be captured before they melted. He first became interested in snow crystals as a teenager on his family farm. He tried to draw what he saw through an old microscope given to him by his mother when he was fifteen. The snowflakes were too complex to record before they melted, so he attached a bellows camera to a compound microscope and, after much experimentation, photographed his first snowflake on January 15, 1885. He would capture more than 5,000 images of crystals in his lifetime. Bentley’s work gained attention after his work was first published in a magazine by Henry Crocker of Fairfax, Vermont; who consequently ended up with the largest private collection of Bentley’s works. In collaboration with George Henry Perkins, professor of natural history at the University of Vermont, Bentley published an article in which he argued that no two snowflakes were alike. This concept caught the public imagination and he published other articles in magazines, including National Geographic, Nature, Popular Science, and Scientific American. In 1931 Bentley worked with William J. Humphreys of the U.S. Weather Bureau to publish Snow Crystals, illustrated with 2,500 photographs. His other publications include the entry on “snow” in the fourteenth Edition of Encyclopædia Britannica. Bentley also photographed all forms of ice and natural water formations including clouds and fog. He was the first American to record raindrop sizes and was one of the first cloud physicists. After walking home six miles in a blizzard, Bentley died of pneumonia at his farm on December 23, 1931. Bentley was memorialized in the naming of a science center in his memory at Johnson State College in Johnson, Vermont. Shortly before his death, his book Snow Crystals was published by McGraw/Hill and is still in print today.

Today I am starting a 3 day episode - because some things need more than one post to explain. This week it is SNOWFLAKE BATTLES. We start with Wilson Bentley (1865 – 1931), one of the first known photographers of snowflakes. He perfected a process of catching flakes on black velvet in such a way that their images could be captured before they melted. He first became interested in snow crystals as a teenager on his family farm. He tried to draw what he saw through an old microscope given to him by his mother when he was fifteen. The snowflakes were too complex to record before they melted, so he attached a bellows camera to a compound microscope and, after much experimentation, photographed his first snowflake on January 15, 1885. He would capture more than 5,000 images of crystals in his lifetime. Bentley’s work gained attention after his work was first published in a magazine by Henry Crocker of Fairfax, Vermont; who consequently ended up with the largest private collection of Bentley’s works. In collaboration with George Henry Perkins, professor of natural history at the University of Vermont, Bentley published an article in which he argued that no two snowflakes were alike. This concept caught the public imagination and he published other articles in magazines, including National Geographic, Nature, Popular Science, and Scientific American. In 1931 Bentley worked with William J. Humphreys of the U.S. Weather Bureau to publish Snow Crystals, illustrated with 2,500 photographs. His other publications include the entry on “snow” in the fourteenth Edition of Encyclopædia Britannica. Bentley also photographed all forms of ice and natural water formations including clouds and fog. He was the first American to record raindrop sizes and was one of the first cloud physicists. After walking home six miles in a blizzard, Bentley died of pneumonia at his farm on December 23, 1931. Bentley was memorialized in the naming of a science center in his memory at Johnson State College in Johnson, Vermont. Shortly before his death, his book Snow Crystals was published by McGraw/Hill and is still in print today.

by Sarah Jamison

  Lewis Wickes Hine (1874 – 1940) was an American sociologist and photographer. Hine used his camera as a tool for social reform and his photographs were instrumental in changing the child labor laws in the United States. Hine studied sociology at the University of Chicago, Columbia University and New York University. He became a teacher in New York City at the Ethical Culture School, where he encouraged his students to use photography as an educational medium. The classes traveled to Ellis Island in New York Harbor, photographing the thousands of immigrants who arrived each day. In 1908, he became the photographer for the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC), leaving his teaching position. Over the next decade, Hine documented child labor, with focus on labor in the Carolina Piedmont, in American industry to aid the NCLC’s lobbying efforts to end the practice. In 1930, Hine was commissioned to document the construction of The Empire State Building. Hine photographed the workers in precarious positions while they secured the iron and steel framework of the structure, taking many of the same risks the workers endured. He also served as chief photographer for the Works Progress Administration’s (WPA) National Research Project, which studied changes in industry and their effect on employment. Hine was also a member of the faculty of the Ethical Culture Fieldston School. In 1936, Hine was selected as the photographer for the National Research Project of the Works Projects Administration, but his work there was never completed. After Lewis Hine’s death his son Corydon donated his prints and negatives to the Photo League, which was dismantled in 1951. The George Eastman House in Rochester, New York now holds his collection.

Lewis Wickes Hine (1874 – 1940) was an American sociologist and photographer. Hine used his camera as a tool for social reform and his photographs were instrumental in changing the child labor laws in the United States. Hine studied sociology at the University of Chicago, Columbia University and New York University. He became a teacher in New York City at the Ethical Culture School, where he encouraged his students to use photography as an educational medium. The classes traveled to Ellis Island in New York Harbor, photographing the thousands of immigrants who arrived each day. In 1908, he became the photographer for the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC), leaving his teaching position. Over the next decade, Hine documented child labor, with focus on labor in the Carolina Piedmont, in American industry to aid the NCLC’s lobbying efforts to end the practice. In 1930, Hine was commissioned to document the construction of The Empire State Building. Hine photographed the workers in precarious positions while they secured the iron and steel framework of the structure, taking many of the same risks the workers endured. He also served as chief photographer for the Works Progress Administration’s (WPA) National Research Project, which studied changes in industry and their effect on employment. Hine was also a member of the faculty of the Ethical Culture Fieldston School. In 1936, Hine was selected as the photographer for the National Research Project of the Works Projects Administration, but his work there was never completed. After Lewis Hine’s death his son Corydon donated his prints and negatives to the Photo League, which was dismantled in 1951. The George Eastman House in Rochester, New York now holds his collection.

by Sarah Jamison

  Walker Evans is one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century. His elegant, crystal-clear photographs and articulate publications have inspired several generations of artists was the pioneer of the documentary tradition in American photography. His principal subject was the indigenous expressions of a people found in roadside stands, cheap cafés, advertisements, simple bedrooms, and small-town main streets. For fifty years, from the late 1920s to the early 1970s, Evans recorded the American scene with the nuance of a poet and the precision of a surgeon, creating an encyclopedic visual catalogue of modern America in the making. The Depression years of 1935–36 were ones of remarkable productivity and accomplishment for Evans. In June 1935, he accepted a job from the U.S. Department of the Interior to photograph a government-built resettlement community of unemployed coal miners in West Virginia. He quickly parlayed this temporary employment into a full-time position as an “information specialist” in the Resettlement (later Farm Security) Administration, a New Deal agency in the Department of Agriculture. Between 1934 and 1965, Evans contributed more than 400 photographs to 45 articles published in Fortune magazine. He worked at the luxe magazine as Special Photographic Editor from 1945 to 1965 and not only conceived of the portfolios, executed the photographs, and designed the page layouts, but also wrote the accompanying texts. His topics were executed with both black-and-white and color materials and included railroad company insignias, common tools, old summer resort hotels, and views of America from the train window. Using the standard journalistic picture-story format, Evans combined his interest in words and pictures and created a multidisciplinary narrative of unusually high quality. Classics of a neglected genre, these self-assigned essays were Evans métier for twenty years.

Walker Evans is one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century. His elegant, crystal-clear photographs and articulate publications have inspired several generations of artists was the pioneer of the documentary tradition in American photography. His principal subject was the indigenous expressions of a people found in roadside stands, cheap cafés, advertisements, simple bedrooms, and small-town main streets. For fifty years, from the late 1920s to the early 1970s, Evans recorded the American scene with the nuance of a poet and the precision of a surgeon, creating an encyclopedic visual catalogue of modern America in the making. The Depression years of 1935–36 were ones of remarkable productivity and accomplishment for Evans. In June 1935, he accepted a job from the U.S. Department of the Interior to photograph a government-built resettlement community of unemployed coal miners in West Virginia. He quickly parlayed this temporary employment into a full-time position as an “information specialist” in the Resettlement (later Farm Security) Administration, a New Deal agency in the Department of Agriculture. Between 1934 and 1965, Evans contributed more than 400 photographs to 45 articles published in Fortune magazine. He worked at the luxe magazine as Special Photographic Editor from 1945 to 1965 and not only conceived of the portfolios, executed the photographs, and designed the page layouts, but also wrote the accompanying texts. His topics were executed with both black-and-white and color materials and included railroad company insignias, common tools, old summer resort hotels, and views of America from the train window. Using the standard journalistic picture-story format, Evans combined his interest in words and pictures and created a multidisciplinary narrative of unusually high quality. Classics of a neglected genre, these self-assigned essays were Evans métier for twenty years.

by Sarah Jamison

  John Thomson (1837 – 1921) was a pioneering Scottish photographer, geographer and traveler. He was one of the first photographers to travel to the Far East, documenting the people, landscapes and artifacts of eastern cultures. Upon returning home, his photographs among the streets of London cemented his reputation, and is regarded as a classic instance of social documentary which laid the foundations for photojournalism. He went on to become a portrait photographer of High Society in Mayfair, gaining the Royal Warrant in 1881. In April 1862, Thomson left Edinburgh for Singapore, beginning a ten-year period spent travelling around the Far East. He established a photographic studio in Singapore. After visiting Ceylon and India from October to November 1864 to document the destruction caused by a recent cyclone, Thomson sold his Singapore studio and moved to Siam. After arrival in Bangkok in September 1865, Thomson undertook a series of photographs of the King of Siam and other senior members of the royal court and government. Thomson returned to England in 1872, settling in Brixton, London and, apart from a final photographic journey to Cyprus in 1878. Over the coming years he proceeded to lecture and publish, presenting the results of his travels in the Far East. His publications started initially in monthly magazines and were followed by a series of large, lavishly illustrated photographic books. He wrote extensively on photography, contributing many articles to photographic journals such as the British Journal of Photography. He also translated and edited Gaston Tissandier’s 1876 History and Handbook of Photography, which became a standard reference work. In recognition of his work, one of the peaks of Mount Kenya was named “Point Thomson” on his death in 1921. That same year, Henry Wellcome acquired a collection of glass negatives, totaling over 600, that were owned by Thomson. Today they are in the collection of the Wellcome Library. Some of Thomson’s work may be seen at the Royal Geographical Society’s headquarters in London.

John Thomson (1837 – 1921) was a pioneering Scottish photographer, geographer and traveler. He was one of the first photographers to travel to the Far East, documenting the people, landscapes and artifacts of eastern cultures. Upon returning home, his photographs among the streets of London cemented his reputation, and is regarded as a classic instance of social documentary which laid the foundations for photojournalism. He went on to become a portrait photographer of High Society in Mayfair, gaining the Royal Warrant in 1881. In April 1862, Thomson left Edinburgh for Singapore, beginning a ten-year period spent travelling around the Far East. He established a photographic studio in Singapore. After visiting Ceylon and India from October to November 1864 to document the destruction caused by a recent cyclone, Thomson sold his Singapore studio and moved to Siam. After arrival in Bangkok in September 1865, Thomson undertook a series of photographs of the King of Siam and other senior members of the royal court and government. Thomson returned to England in 1872, settling in Brixton, London and, apart from a final photographic journey to Cyprus in 1878. Over the coming years he proceeded to lecture and publish, presenting the results of his travels in the Far East. His publications started initially in monthly magazines and were followed by a series of large, lavishly illustrated photographic books. He wrote extensively on photography, contributing many articles to photographic journals such as the British Journal of Photography. He also translated and edited Gaston Tissandier’s 1876 History and Handbook of Photography, which became a standard reference work. In recognition of his work, one of the peaks of Mount Kenya was named “Point Thomson” on his death in 1921. That same year, Henry Wellcome acquired a collection of glass negatives, totaling over 600, that were owned by Thomson. Today they are in the collection of the Wellcome Library. Some of Thomson’s work may be seen at the Royal Geographical Society’s headquarters in London.

by Sarah Jamison

   centuriespast : 
 
  Carleton Emmons Watkins (  American, 1829-1916  ),    Untitled (Rooster Rock, Columbia River)   , 1867, albumen silver prints; stereograph  
  Portland Art Museum  
 
  Carleton E. Watkins (1829 – 1916) was a noted 19th-century California photographer. He series of conservation photographs of the Yosemite Valley in the 1860’s, significantly influenced the United States Congress’ decision to establish the valley as a National Park in 1864. Carleton Eugene Watkins was born in Oneonta, upstate New York. He went to San Francisco during the gold rush, arriving in 1851.   His interest in photography started as an aide in a San Francisco portrait studio in 1861. He soon started making photographs of California mining scenes and of Yosemite Valley. He experimented with several new photographic techniques, and eventually favored his “Mammoth Camera,” which used large glass plate negatives, and a stereographic camera. He became famous for his series of photographs and historic stereoviews of Yosemite Valley.    However Watkins was not a good businessman. He spent lavishly on his San Francisco studio and went deeply into debt. His photographs were auctioned, following a business setback, resulting in his photographs being published without credit by I. W. Taber, the new owner. Watkins also had problems of his photographs being reprinted without permission by Eastern companies and with other photographers rephotographing the exact scenes Watkins photographed.    In 1879, Watkins married his 22-year-old assistant, Frances Sneade, with whom he had two children. Watkins began anew with his “New Series,” which included a variety of subjects and formats, mostly related to California. However, he remained poor and his family lived for a time in an abandoned railroad boxcar. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire destroyed Watkins’s studio and negatives. In 1910 Watkins was committed to the Napa State Hospital for the Insane, where he died six years later.

centuriespast:

Carleton Emmons Watkins (American, 1829-1916), Untitled (Rooster Rock, Columbia River), 1867, albumen silver prints; stereograph

Portland Art Museum

Carleton E. Watkins (1829 – 1916) was a noted 19th-century California photographer. He series of conservation photographs of the Yosemite Valley in the 1860’s, significantly influenced the United States Congress’ decision to establish the valley as a National Park in 1864. Carleton Eugene Watkins was born in Oneonta, upstate New York. He went to San Francisco during the gold rush, arriving in 1851. His interest in photography started as an aide in a San Francisco portrait studio in 1861. He soon started making photographs of California mining scenes and of Yosemite Valley. He experimented with several new photographic techniques, and eventually favored his “Mammoth Camera,” which used large glass plate negatives, and a stereographic camera. He became famous for his series of photographs and historic stereoviews of Yosemite Valley.

However Watkins was not a good businessman. He spent lavishly on his San Francisco studio and went deeply into debt. His photographs were auctioned, following a business setback, resulting in his photographs being published without credit by I. W. Taber, the new owner. Watkins also had problems of his photographs being reprinted without permission by Eastern companies and with other photographers rephotographing the exact scenes Watkins photographed.

In 1879, Watkins married his 22-year-old assistant, Frances Sneade, with whom he had two children. Watkins began anew with his “New Series,” which included a variety of subjects and formats, mostly related to California. However, he remained poor and his family lived for a time in an abandoned railroad boxcar. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire destroyed Watkins’s studio and negatives. In 1910 Watkins was committed to the Napa State Hospital for the Insane, where he died six years later.

by Sarah Jamison

  Southworth & Hawes (1843 - 1863) was an early photographic firm in Boston. Its partners, Albert Sands Southworth (1811–1894) and Josiah Johnson Hawes (1808–1901), have been hailed as the first great American masters of photography, whose work elevated photographic portraits to the level of fine art. The partnership’s studio, located on the top floor of a Boston building, had enormous skylights to allow in copious amounts of light necessary for relatively “short” exposures of portraits of their subjects. Southworth & Hawes worked almost exclusively in the daguerreotype process. Working in the 8 ½ x 6 ½ inch whole plate format, their images are large, mirror-like, finely detailed, and expensive. During their 20 years of collaboration, Southworth & Hawes catered to Boston’ high society and the famous. Their advertisements drew a distinction between the appropriate styles for personal versus public portraiture. “A likeness for an intimate acquaintance or one’s own family should be marked by that amiability and cheerfulness, so appropriate to the social circle and the home fireside. Those for the public, of official dignitaries and celebrated characters admit of more firmness, sternness and soberness.” The image here is a post-mortem portrait of a young girl. Post-mortem photographs served as keepsakes to remember the deceased. This was especially common with infants and young children; Victorian era childhood mortality rates were extremely high, and a post-mortem photograph might have been the only image of the child the family ever had. The practice eventually peaked in popularity around the end of the 19th century and died out as “snapshot” photography became more commonplace.

Southworth & Hawes (1843 - 1863) was an early photographic firm in Boston. Its partners, Albert Sands Southworth (1811–1894) and Josiah Johnson Hawes (1808–1901), have been hailed as the first great American masters of photography, whose work elevated photographic portraits to the level of fine art. The partnership’s studio, located on the top floor of a Boston building, had enormous skylights to allow in copious amounts of light necessary for relatively “short” exposures of portraits of their subjects. Southworth & Hawes worked almost exclusively in the daguerreotype process. Working in the 8 ½ x 6 ½ inch whole plate format, their images are large, mirror-like, finely detailed, and expensive. During their 20 years of collaboration, Southworth & Hawes catered to Boston’ high society and the famous. Their advertisements drew a distinction between the appropriate styles for personal versus public portraiture. “A likeness for an intimate acquaintance or one’s own family should be marked by that amiability and cheerfulness, so appropriate to the social circle and the home fireside. Those for the public, of official dignitaries and celebrated characters admit of more firmness, sternness and soberness.” The image here is a post-mortem portrait of a young girl. Post-mortem photographs served as keepsakes to remember the deceased. This was especially common with infants and young children; Victorian era childhood mortality rates were extremely high, and a post-mortem photograph might have been the only image of the child the family ever had. The practice eventually peaked in popularity around the end of the 19th century and died out as “snapshot” photography became more commonplace.

by Sarah Jamison

  Vittorio Sella (1859 – 1943) was an Italian photographer and mountaineer. Sella was born in the foothills of the Alps. He made a number of significant climbs in the Alps, including the first winter ascents of the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa, and the first winter traverse of Mont Blanc. He took part in several expeditions further afield and continued to climb into his old age, and made his last attempt on the Matterhorn at seventy six. In spite of the difficulty of carrying bulky and fragile equipment into remote places, the high quality of Sella’s photography was in part due to his use of 30×40 cm photographic plates. He had to invent equipment, including modified pack saddles and ruck sacks, to allow the large glass plates to be transported safely. Many of the mountains he photographed had never been photographically recorded, lending to his photographs’ historical as well as artistic significance. His photographs were widely published and exhibited, and highly praised. Sella died in Biella in 1943. His collection of photographs is now managed by the Sella Foundation (Fondazione Sella) in Biella, Italy.

Vittorio Sella (1859 – 1943) was an Italian photographer and mountaineer. Sella was born in the foothills of the Alps. He made a number of significant climbs in the Alps, including the first winter ascents of the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa, and the first winter traverse of Mont Blanc. He took part in several expeditions further afield and continued to climb into his old age, and made his last attempt on the Matterhorn at seventy six. In spite of the difficulty of carrying bulky and fragile equipment into remote places, the high quality of Sella’s photography was in part due to his use of 30×40 cm photographic plates. He had to invent equipment, including modified pack saddles and ruck sacks, to allow the large glass plates to be transported safely. Many of the mountains he photographed had never been photographically recorded, lending to his photographs’ historical as well as artistic significance. His photographs were widely published and exhibited, and highly praised. Sella died in Biella in 1943. His collection of photographs is now managed by the Sella Foundation (Fondazione Sella) in Biella, Italy.

by Sarah Jamison

  Anne Wardrope (Nott) Brigman (1869–1950) was an American photographer and one of the original members of the Photo-Secession movement in America. She began photographing in 1901. Soon she was exhibiting in local photographic salons, and within two years she had developed a reputation as a master of pictorial photography. In late 1902 she came across a copy of Camera Work and was captivated by the images and the writings of Alfred Stieglitz. She wrote Stieglitz praising him for the journal, and Stieglitz in turn soon became captivated with Brigman’s photography. In 1906 she was listed as a Fellow of the Photo-Secession, the only photographer west of the Mississippi to be honored. In 1908 the Secession Club held a special exhibit for her photographs in New York, and in 1909 she won a gold medal in the Alaska-Yukon Exposition as well as awards in Europe. Brigman often featured herself as the subject of her images,and after shooting the photographs, she would extensively touch up the negatives with paints, pencil, or superimposition. Brigman’s deliberately counter-cultural images suggested bohemianism and female liberation. Her work challenged the establishment’s cultural norms and defied convention, by embracing pagan antiquity. The raw emotional intensity and strength of her photos contrasted with the carefully calculated and composed images of Stieglitz and other modern photographers.

Anne Wardrope (Nott) Brigman (1869–1950) was an American photographer and one of the original members of the Photo-Secession movement in America. She began photographing in 1901. Soon she was exhibiting in local photographic salons, and within two years she had developed a reputation as a master of pictorial photography. In late 1902 she came across a copy of Camera Work and was captivated by the images and the writings of Alfred Stieglitz. She wrote Stieglitz praising him for the journal, and Stieglitz in turn soon became captivated with Brigman’s photography. In 1906 she was listed as a Fellow of the Photo-Secession, the only photographer west of the Mississippi to be honored. In 1908 the Secession Club held a special exhibit for her photographs in New York, and in 1909 she won a gold medal in the Alaska-Yukon Exposition as well as awards in Europe. Brigman often featured herself as the subject of her images,and after shooting the photographs, she would extensively touch up the negatives with paints, pencil, or superimposition. Brigman’s deliberately counter-cultural images suggested bohemianism and female liberation. Her work challenged the establishment’s cultural norms and defied convention, by embracing pagan antiquity. The raw emotional intensity and strength of her photos contrasted with the carefully calculated and composed images of Stieglitz and other modern photographers.

by Sarah Jamison

   Eadweard James Muybridge (1830 – 1904, birth name Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer known for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection. In 1861 he took up professional photography, learning the wet-plate collodion process, and secured at least two British patents for his inventions. He went back to San Francisco in 1867, and in 1868 his large photographs of Yosemite Valley made him world famous. Today, Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-motion photographs, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography. In the 1880s, Muybridge entered a very productive period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, producing over 100,000 images of animals and humans in motion, capturing what the human eye could not distinguish as separate movements. He spent much of his later years giving public lectures and demonstrations of his photography and early motion picture sequences. He also edited and published compilations of his work, which greatly influenced visual artists and the developing fields of scientific and industrial photography. He returned to his native England permanently in 1894, and in 1904, the Kingston Museum, containing a collection of his equipment, was opened in his hometown.

Eadweard James Muybridge (1830 – 1904, birth name Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer known for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection. In 1861 he took up professional photography, learning the wet-plate collodion process, and secured at least two British patents for his inventions. He went back to San Francisco in 1867, and in 1868 his large photographs of Yosemite Valley made him world famous. Today, Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-motion photographs, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography. In the 1880s, Muybridge entered a very productive period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, producing over 100,000 images of animals and humans in motion, capturing what the human eye could not distinguish as separate movements. He spent much of his later years giving public lectures and demonstrations of his photography and early motion picture sequences. He also edited and published compilations of his work, which greatly influenced visual artists and the developing fields of scientific and industrial photography. He returned to his native England permanently in 1894, and in 1904, the Kingston Museum, containing a collection of his equipment, was opened in his hometown.

by Sarah Jamison

   Nadar was the pseudonym of Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (1820 – 1910), a French photographer, caricaturist, journalist, novelist, and balloonist. He took his first photographs in 1853 and in 1858 became the first person to take aerial photographs, using a hot air balloon. He also pioneered the use of artificial lighting in photography, working in the catacombs of Paris. Nadar opened his first photography studio in 1854, but he only practiced for six years. He focused on the psychological elements of photography, aiming to reveal the moral personalities of his sitters rather than make attractive portraits. Bust- or half-length poses, solid backdrops, dramatic lighting, fine sculpturing, and concentration on the face were trademarks of his studio. His use of eight-by-ten-inch glass-plate negatives, which were significantly larger than the popular sizes of daguerreotypes, accentuated those effects. He photographed many of the famous and influential artisans including Sarah Burnhardt, Gustave Dore, and Monet. Around 1863, Nadar built a huge (6000 m3) balloon named Le Géant (“The Giant”), thereby inspiring Jules Verne’s, “Five Weeks in a Balloon”. During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), Nadar organized the construction of balloons (ultimately 67 in number) to reconnect the besieged Parisians with the rest of the world, thus the world’s first airmail service. In April 1874, he lent his photo studio to a group of painters, thus making the first exhibition of the Impressionists possible. He is credited with having published the first photo-interview, in 1886, of famous chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul.

Nadar was the pseudonym of Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (1820 – 1910), a French photographer, caricaturist, journalist, novelist, and balloonist. He took his first photographs in 1853 and in 1858 became the first person to take aerial photographs, using a hot air balloon. He also pioneered the use of artificial lighting in photography, working in the catacombs of Paris. Nadar opened his first photography studio in 1854, but he only practiced for six years. He focused on the psychological elements of photography, aiming to reveal the moral personalities of his sitters rather than make attractive portraits. Bust- or half-length poses, solid backdrops, dramatic lighting, fine sculpturing, and concentration on the face were trademarks of his studio. His use of eight-by-ten-inch glass-plate negatives, which were significantly larger than the popular sizes of daguerreotypes, accentuated those effects. He photographed many of the famous and influential artisans including Sarah Burnhardt, Gustave Dore, and Monet. Around 1863, Nadar built a huge (6000 m3) balloon named Le Géant (“The Giant”), thereby inspiring Jules Verne’s, “Five Weeks in a Balloon”. During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), Nadar organized the construction of balloons (ultimately 67 in number) to reconnect the besieged Parisians with the rest of the world, thus the world’s first airmail service. In April 1874, he lent his photo studio to a group of painters, thus making the first exhibition of the Impressionists possible. He is credited with having published the first photo-interview, in 1886, of famous chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul.

by Sarah Jamison

   Alexander Gardner (1821 – 1882) was a Scottish photographer who emigrated to the United States in 1856. He is best known for his photographs of the American Civil War, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, and the execution of the conspirators to Lincoln’s assassination. In 1860, Gardner became the chief photographer for the Civil War under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Topographical Engineers. After the war, Gardner was commissioned to photograph Native Americans who came to Washington to discuss treaties; and he surveyed the proposed route of the Kansas Pacific railroad to the Pacific Ocean. After 1871, Gardner gave up photography and helped to found an insurance company. A century later, photographic analysis suggested that Gardner had manipulated the settings of his Civil War photos by moving soldiers corpses and weapons into more dramatic positions.

Alexander Gardner (1821 – 1882) was a Scottish photographer who emigrated to the United States in 1856. He is best known for his photographs of the American Civil War, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, and the execution of the conspirators to Lincoln’s assassination. In 1860, Gardner became the chief photographer for the Civil War under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Topographical Engineers. After the war, Gardner was commissioned to photograph Native Americans who came to Washington to discuss treaties; and he surveyed the proposed route of the Kansas Pacific railroad to the Pacific Ocean. After 1871, Gardner gave up photography and helped to found an insurance company. A century later, photographic analysis suggested that Gardner had manipulated the settings of his Civil War photos by moving soldiers corpses and weapons into more dramatic positions.

by Sarah Jamison

   George Eastman was one of the first to demonstrate and mass produce the great convenience of gelatin dry plates over the cumbersome and messy wet plate photography prevalent in his day. Dry plates could be exposed and developed at the photographer’s convenience; wet plates had to be coated, exposed at once, and developed while still wet. In 1881, Eastman and Henry A. Strong (a family friend and buggy-whip manufacturer) formed a partnership known as the Eastman Dry Plate Company. In 1885. EASTMAN American Film was introduced - the first transparent photographic “film” as we know it today. And in, 1888, the name “Kodak” was born and the KODAK camera was placed on the market, with the slogan, “You press the button - we do the rest.” This was the birth of snapshot photography, as millions of amateur picture-takers know it today.

George Eastman was one of the first to demonstrate and mass produce the great convenience of gelatin dry plates over the cumbersome and messy wet plate photography prevalent in his day. Dry plates could be exposed and developed at the photographer’s convenience; wet plates had to be coated, exposed at once, and developed while still wet. In 1881, Eastman and Henry A. Strong (a family friend and buggy-whip manufacturer) formed a partnership known as the Eastman Dry Plate Company. In 1885. EASTMAN American Film was introduced - the first transparent photographic “film” as we know it today. And in, 1888, the name “Kodak” was born and the KODAK camera was placed on the market, with the slogan, “You press the button - we do the rest.” This was the birth of snapshot photography, as millions of amateur picture-takers know it today.

by Sarah Jamison

   Trafalgar Square and St. Martin-in-the-Fields. George Davison (1854-1930) began to make photographs in 1885, when he joined the Camera Club photography society. The next year, he became a member of the Royal Photographic Society. Peter Henry Emerson was a major influence in his early work. Davisons’ photographs became an object of controversy in the Royal Photographic Society, and in 1892, he decided to leave the society and to establish a new organisation, The Linked Ring Brotherhood. Davidson became a deputy director of Kodak in 1898, and the director two years later.

Trafalgar Square and St. Martin-in-the-Fields. George Davison (1854-1930) began to make photographs in 1885, when he joined the Camera Club photography society. The next year, he became a member of the Royal Photographic Society. Peter Henry Emerson was a major influence in his early work. Davisons’ photographs became an object of controversy in the Royal Photographic Society, and in 1892, he decided to leave the society and to establish a new organisation, The Linked Ring Brotherhood. Davidson became a deputy director of Kodak in 1898, and the director two years later.

by Sarah Jamison

   Peter Henry Emerson’s (1856 – 1936) photographs are early examples of promoting photography as an art form. In 1885 he was involved in the formation of the Camera Club of London, and the following year he was elected to the Council of the Photographic Society and abandoned his career as a surgeon to become a photographer and writer. In 1889 he published a controversial and influential book, “Naturalistic Photography for Students of the Art”, in which he explained his philosophy of art and straightforward photography. He claimed that photography should be seen as a genre of its own, not one that seeks to imitate other art forms. His theories on photography are still a strong influence on how photography is taught today.

Peter Henry Emerson’s (1856 – 1936) photographs are early examples of promoting photography as an art form. In 1885 he was involved in the formation of the Camera Club of London, and the following year he was elected to the Council of the Photographic Society and abandoned his career as a surgeon to become a photographer and writer. In 1889 he published a controversial and influential book, “Naturalistic Photography for Students of the Art”, in which he explained his philosophy of art and straightforward photography. He claimed that photography should be seen as a genre of its own, not one that seeks to imitate other art forms. His theories on photography are still a strong influence on how photography is taught today.

by Sarah Jamison

   Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (1787-1851), a romantic painter and printmaker, invented the Daguerreotype, a one of a kind highly detailed image on a polished, silver-plated sheet of copper. Working with Niépce, he created a way to fix the image on metal. His invention became a huge success in Europe and America. Unfortunately, less than 25% of Daguerre’s original photographs survived a devastating fire to his laboratory in March of 1839. This image (1938), includes the first known candid photo of a person (lower left).

Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (1787-1851), a romantic painter and printmaker, invented the Daguerreotype, a one of a kind highly detailed image on a polished, silver-plated sheet of copper. Working with Niépce, he created a way to fix the image on metal. His invention became a huge success in Europe and America. Unfortunately, less than 25% of Daguerre’s original photographs survived a devastating fire to his laboratory in March of 1839. This image (1938), includes the first known candid photo of a person (lower left).

by Sarah Jamison

   Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879) received her first camera as a gift on her 48th birthday. Friends with many of the prominent artists, poets, and thinkers if the Victirian age, her work reflected a deeply spiritual and historical sensibility. She quickly created a new aesthetic for what photography would become. Many include her as one of the first photographers to use the camera for a creative and artistic purpose. This photo is titled “The Echo”.

Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879) received her first camera as a gift on her 48th birthday. Friends with many of the prominent artists, poets, and thinkers if the Victirian age, her work reflected a deeply spiritual and historical sensibility. She quickly created a new aesthetic for what photography would become. Many include her as one of the first photographers to use the camera for a creative and artistic purpose. This photo is titled “The Echo”.

by Sarah Jamison

   William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877) invented the calotype (Greek: meaning beautiful), a new way to fix images on paper. This image is from his 1844 book “Pencil of Nature”, a promotional book he used to demonstrate the various ways of photography. In less than a decade, Talbot brought a new way of making pictures, perfected the optical and chemical aspects of photography for complex images for botanists, historians, travelers, and artists.

William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877) invented the calotype (Greek: meaning beautiful), a new way to fix images on paper. This image is from his 1844 book “Pencil of Nature”, a promotional book he used to demonstrate the various ways of photography. In less than a decade, Talbot brought a new way of making pictures, perfected the optical and chemical aspects of photography for complex images for botanists, historians, travelers, and artists.

by Sarah Jamison

   Let’s start with the world’s first fixed photograph. It was created by the Joseph Niépce in 1826. The image depicts the view from his estate, Las Gras, France. The exposure took 8 hours and was fixed with a mixture of oil of lavender and white petroleum. The original print is on view at the Harry Ransom Center in Austin, TX!

Let’s start with the world’s first fixed photograph. It was created by the Joseph Niépce in 1826. The image depicts the view from his estate, Las Gras, France. The exposure took 8 hours and was fixed with a mixture of oil of lavender and white petroleum. The original print is on view at the Harry Ransom Center in Austin, TX!